Tissue Engineering in Periodontics – A Review
Tissue engineering is a highly promising field of reconstructive biology that draws on recent advances in medicine, surgery, molecular and cellular biology, polymer chemistry, and physiology. The objective of using tissue engineering as therapeutic application has been to harness its ability to exploit selected and primed cells together with an appropriate mix of regulatory factors to allow growth and specialization of cells and matrix. The authors reviewed controlled clinical trials which also included histological studies that evaluated the potential of tissue engineering as a clinical tool in regeneration. PubMed/MEDLINE databases were searched for studies up to and including June 2010 to identify appropriate articles. A comprehensive search was designed, and the articles were independently screened for eligibility. Articles with authentic controls and proper randomization and pertaining specifically to their role in periodontal regeneration were included. Studies demonstrated that periodontal regeneration with the use of combination of tissue engineered products with an osteoconductive matrix improve the beneficial effect of these materials by accelerating cellular in-growth and revascularization of the wound site. Studies have suggested the use of Platelet-derived growth factor alongwith beta tricalcium phosphate for regeneration of the periodontal attachment apparatus in combination with collagen membranes as an acceptable alternative to connective tissue graft for covering gingival recession defects. These studies concluded that growth factors promote true regeneration of the periodontal attachment apparatus and the use of combination protein therapeutics could provide more predictable, faster, and less invasive, less traumatic and efficient outcome for the patients.
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