Acta Medica Scientia <p style="text-align: justify;">Acta Medica Scientia&nbsp;(AMS) E-ISSN: 2454-3594; is an&nbsp;open-access,&nbsp;peer-reviewed online journal&nbsp;published&nbsp;monthly. The aim of&nbsp;journal publish high quality original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of Medical Sciences.</p> ASD Publisher en-US Acta Medica Scientia 2454-3594 <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">A) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">B) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">C) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> Effect of Sida corymbosa leaf extract on the activity of serum liver enzymes of alloxan-induced diabetic albino wistar rats <p>This study was designed to investigate the effect of <em>Sida corymbosa </em>(SC) leaf extract on serum liver enzymes activity in alloxan induced diabetic albino wistar rats. A total of 30 albino wistar rats each weighing 100g were assembled and divided into 3 groups (A-C) consisting of 10 rats. Group A received SCtreatment, B received ethanol treatment while group C served as the control group. 400mg/kg of aqueous extract of SC leaf was administered orally to the rats in group A but group B received ethanol while group C received only water for 7 days. Blood samples were collected into plain containers for estimation of biochemical parameters (ALT, AST and ALP) respectively. Serum ALP, ALT and AST were analyzed using standard methods. There was a significant decrease in the mean serum activities of ALT, AST, and ALP respectively after SC administration when compared with the control group (P=0.001, 0.000, and 0.001 respectively). Again, the result showed a significant decrease in the mean weight of the albino ratspost SC administration (P=0.000). This study revealed the &nbsp;deleterious effect of of SC use on the liver. Therefore, care should be taken in the use of SC in prevention and management of liver diseases especially at high therapeutic dosage level.</p> E. C. Ogbodo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 5 2 5 7 Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and Testosterone levels in infertile males attending Madonna University Teaching Hospital, Elele <p>Aim: The study was carried out to determine the concentrations of Dehydroepiandrosterone hormone (DHEAS) and testosterone in infertile males and compared with fertile males attending Madonna University Teaching Hospital (MUTH) Elele. <br>Methods: Thirty apparently infertile males were studied and compared with 30 apparently fertile male as control.<br>Results: There was significant increase (P&lt;0.05) in DHEAS of 1.23+0.07 ug/ml obtained in infertile male compared with 3.78 +0.13 ug/ml in the control. There was significant difference in Semen count of 56.27 +2.82million/ml in fertile males compared with 7.73+ 0.10 million/ml while testosterone in infertile males of 2.53+0.09 was significantly lower than 7.52+0.31 in fertile males(P&lt;0.05).<br>Conclusion: The study showed that DHEAS is elevated in infertility hence should be considered an indicator of infertility.</p> Adegoke O. A. Bamigbowu E. O. Nwaganga C. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 5 2 4 6 Evaluation of apo-lipoproteins and troponin levels in post-menopausal women in Nnewi Metropolis, Anambra state, Nigeria <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The global burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is rapidly increasing. It is the leading cause of death in women around the world. This study investigated the Apo-Lipoproteins and Troponin Levels in Post-Menopausal Women in Nnewi Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A total of 120 subjects comprising of 60 apparently healthy post-menopausal and premenopausal women (control) aged between 50 to 70 years and 20 to 30 years respectively were recruited for the study. Their demographic data, blood pressure readings, andbody mass index (BMI) were obtained using a well-structured questionnaire. Thereafter, 5mls of blood sample was collected from the subjects into plain container and used for the estimation of biochemical parameters (Apo A-I, Apo B, Apo C-II, and Troponin I levels) respectively using standard laboratory methods. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using student t-test and Pearson r correlation.</p> <p><strong>Observations and results</strong>: The results showed that the mean serum concentrations of Apo B (0.68±0.38 Vs 0.43±0.18g/L); Apo C-II(0.06±0.01 Vs 0.05±0.01g/L) and Troponin I (0.23±0.07 Vs 0.10±0.08ng/ml) were significantly increased in postmenopausal women than in the control subjects (P=0.000), whereas the mean serum Apo A-I concentration (0.20±0.07 Vs 0.48±0.18g/L) was significantly decreased in postmenopausal women than in the control subjects (P=0.000). Interestingly, the mean BMI did not differ significantly in both subjects (P=0.540). More so, there were significant increase in the SBP (136.95±10.55 Vs 108.67±10.88) and DBP (93. 58±8.49 Vs 80. 33±7.21) in the postmenopausal women than in the control subjects (P=0.000). Again, there were no significant correlation observed in parameters studied in both subjects (p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These findings revealed that the incidence of coronary heart disease may be associated with menopause. Therefore, lifestyle modifications should be incorporated into the daily lives of menopausal women.</p> E. C. Ogbodo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 5 2 1 4 Membrane depolarization in stroke patients <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study was investigated to evaluate the level of membrane potential in stroke patients in Owerri.</p> <p><strong>Material and method:&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>60 stroke patients and 60 apparently healthy subjects between the ages of 60 to 80years admitted to General Hospital Owerri were selected in this study. Fasting veinous blood was collected and was used for the determination of membrane potential .</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results obtained revealed that the level of membrane potential was significantly decreased in stroke patients when compared with the control at P&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This could probably imply depolarization of cell membrane potential leading to&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; reduced cell activity.</p> Nnodim Johnkennedy Nwobodo Emmanuel Nwadike Constance Edward Ukamaka Okorie Hope Obi Patrick ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-10 2017-05-10 5 2 09 11 Haemoglobin Level and Intestinal Parasites in Pregnant Women in Eziama, Imo State of Nigeria <p>This prospective study was carried out between January to June, 2008 at Eziama in Isiala Mbano Local Government Area of Imo State to determine the haemoglobin level and intestinal parasites in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic. In total, 281 stool and blood samples were collected from the women. The stool samples were examined using direct wet preparation and formol ether concentration technique while the haemoglobin levels of the women were estimated using cyanmethaeoglobin technique. The overall prevalence of <em>E. histolytical,</em> <em>A. Lumbricoides</em>, Hookworm Spp, <em>T. trichuria</em> and <em>G. lamblia</em>&nbsp; was 10(3.6), 31(11.0), 29(10.3), 10(3.6) and 3(1.1) respectively. The proportion of pregnant women with helminithic infestation was 83 (29.6%) while their mean Heamoglobin concentration was 9.7<span style="text-decoration: underline;">+</span>1.8g/dl while the pregnant women without helminthic infestation had Heamoglobin concentration of 10.4 <span style="text-decoration: underline;">+</span> 1.3g/dl. The poor socioeconomic status of the women coupled with poor environmental sanitation and lack of clean portable water supply may have contributed to the high prevalence.</p> Adegoke O. Adebayo Bamigbowu E. Olugbenga George-Opuda M. Ibitoroko Nwagu Chinyere Humphrey Nwoke ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-02-25 2017-02-25 5 2 134 137 Quail eggs consumption and the levels of sex hormonesin healthy students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi <p><strong>Aim</strong>: The present study was design to determine the serum levels of sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone, lutenizing hormone, prolactin, and testosterone) following the consumption of cooked quail eggs by apparently healthy students<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Materials and Method</strong>: This is an experimental study comprising 37 volunteered students, out of which are 20 females and 17 males within the age of 18±35years respectively. They were fed with three cooked quail eggs every morning for 21 days.&nbsp; 3ml of fasting blood were collected before the intake of cooked quail eggs for baseline, 10<sup>th</sup> day, and 21<sup>st</sup> day respectively.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: The serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone, lutenizing hormone, prolactin, and testosterone were determined using standard methods. The result showed that the serum testosterone levels increased significantly while prolactin levels decreased significantly at 10<sup>th</sup> and 21<sup>st</sup> day &nbsp;compared with the baseline level (p=0.01). However, the levels of progesterone and estradiol increased significantly at 21<sup>st</sup> day only compared with their baseline (p=0.01).&nbsp; The mean levels of FSH, and LH at baseline, 10<sup>th</sup> and 21<sup>st</sup> day did not differ significantly following consumption of cooked quail eggs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The probably suggest that regular consumption of cooked quail egg may prevent miscarriage due to low progesterone levels because of its ability to increase progesterone level after consumption. It might as well as cause improvement on male and female fertility.</p> Nnodim Johnkennedy Nwankwo Emilia Meludu Samuel Chukwuemeka Dioka Emmanuel C Ezeugwunne Pricilla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-02-25 2017-02-25 5 2 132 133 Quail eggs consumption and the levels of glucose, lipid profile in healthy students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi <p><strong>Aim</strong>: The present study was design to determine serum glucose and lipid profile level of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein following the consumption of cooked quail eggs by apparently healthy students.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This is an experimental study comprising 37 volunteered students, out of which are 20 females and 17 males within the age of 18±35years respectively. They were fed with three cooked quail eggs every morning for 21 days.3ml of fasting blood were collected before the intake of cooked quail eggs for baseline, 10<sup>th</sup> day, and 21<sup>st</sup> day respectively. The serum levels of glucose and lipid profile were determined using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The result showed that the serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol decreased significantly at 10<sup>th</sup> day and 21<sup>st</sup> day following consumption of cooked quail eggs when compared with the baseline levels (p&lt; 0.05). While High density lipoprotein – cholesterol increased significantly at 21<sup>st</sup> day following consumption of cooked quail eggs when compared with the baseline level (p&lt;0.05). Glucose, triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol did not differ at 10<sup>th</sup> day and 21<sup>st</sup> day following consumption of cooked quail eggs when compared with the baseline (p&gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The implication of this finding suggest that regular consumption of cooked quail eggs may decrease diabetic and cardiovascular risk due to its ability to significantly decrease TC, LDL-C, increase HDL-C and TG, VLDL, glucose not differed.</p> Nwankwo Emilia Meludu Samuel Chukwuemeka Dioka Emmanuel C Nnodim Johnkennedy Ezeugwunne Pricilla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-02-25 2017-02-25 5 2 129 131 Evaluating the validity of Golden Proportion, RED (Recurring Aesthetic Dental) Proportion and Golden Percentage in Maharashtrian Population <p>Context: A pleasing dental aesthetics is achieved by the maxillary anterior teeth. Restoring harmonious proportion between widths of maxillary anterior teeth is an important part of aesthetic dentistry. RED proportion and Golden Percentage are new guidelines introduced in this regards.</p><p>Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of Golden Proportion, RED proportion and Golden Percentage in maxillary anterior teeth in Maharashtrian population.</p><p>Methods and Material: Dentulous stone casts of maxillary arch were made of college students who met the inclusion criteriae. Total of 100 students representing Maharashtrian population were included. The width of the anterior teeth was measured using digital calliper.</p><p>Statistical analysis used: The data obtained from all the above methods was entered into Microsoft Excel sheet and statistically analyzed using SPSS statistical package(SPSS 18; IBM Corp, Armonk, NY).</p><p>Results: Golden Proportion and RED proportion failed to validate in Maharashtrian population and so were considered unfavourable methods to determine the width of upper anterior teeth.</p><p>Conclusions: By adjusting the percentage Golden proportion theory could be applied to the Maharashtrian population for better aesthetics taking into consideration the ethnicity of the population.</p> Sanjay Nilawar Antariksha Dod Anil Kumar K Amrita Pandita Swapnil Raut ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-06-03 2016-06-03 5 2 124 126 Digital Era of Orthodontics: A Review <p>Orthodontic treatment is a complex dental treatment which sometimes requires an interdisciplinary team where different specialists of dental medicine have to manage a vast quantity of data especially in adult orthodontics. In such complicated cases, good diagnostic tools and easy communication are essential. Computer science has an increasing impact in almost every aspect of the orthodontic practice. This review will discuss into the said aspects in the practice of orthodontics as well as evaluate the applications of computer technology in orthodontics like digital photographs, cone beam computed tomography, virtual study models, communication, three-dimensional craniofacial imaging, virtual reality softwares for prediction and treatment planning, video imaging, manufacture of orthodontic appliance, web-based digital orthodontic records and network-attached storage devices.</p> Archana Kumari Pareshnath Chakraborthy Anushree Prasad Pratheeth G Krishnamurthy K. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-06-03 2016-06-03 5 2 118 120 An analogical study of two mouth rinses on plaque and gingivitis among school children aged 12-15 years in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India <p>Context and Background: Mechanical methods are known for prevention and control of periodontal diseases since long. It is important to consider these procedures too yet they are labor-intensive and difficult for many patients. Based upon this consideration and aiming to make dental plaque control more accessible to a significant proportion of population, less labor-intensive methods are highly desirable. Consequently, efforts have been made to utilize chemical agents in conjunction with or even instead of mechanical plaque control procedures and have been tested by incorporating them into mouthwashes.</p><p>Methods: Using a double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 subjects aged 12-15 years were grouped into 3 groups: CHX; CHX+NaF; and Placebo. In each one of the 3 groups, the subjects discontinued all oral hygiene measures and continued with the experimental set-up randomly assigned. Levels of gingivitis and plaque scores were assessed at baseline and at the end of 1and 3 months by using Silness and Loe Plaque Index and Loe and Silness Gingival Index.</p><p>Results: The effectiveness of CHX+NaF mouth rinse is superior with regard to inhibition of plaque and gingivitis scores as compared to CHX alone. For CHX+NaF, mean reduction was 1.37854 whereas for CHX, it was 1.18486 for plaque score between baseline and 3 months. For gingivitis score, the mean reduction was 1.0516 for CHX+NaF whereas 1.0659 for CHX between baseline and 3 months.</p><p>Conclusion: Chlorhexidine in combination with active ingredient Sodium Fluoride inhibit the plaque and gingivitis more effectively as compared to Chlorhexidine alone. This combination along with the well-established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries is an important contribution to dental public health.</p> Pareshnath Chakraborthy Archana Kumari Anushree Prasad Pratheeth G Spoorthi Sri Krishnamurthy K ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-06-03 2016-06-03 5 2 121 123 The twisted gut: Role of primary anastomosis without colonic lavage <p><strong>Background : </strong>The twisted gut or the sigmoid volvulus has a multitude of treatment options ranging from colonic decompression to staged procedures such as primary resection anastomosis with covering colostomy followed by colostomy closure at a later date.</p><p><strong>Objective</strong> : This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of primary resection and anastomosis followed by anal dilatation without on table colonic irrigation or diversion colostomy in cases of acute sigmoid volvulus.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong> : This study was carried out over a span of three years and seven months at a teaching hospital in West Bengal. One hundred consecutive cases of acute sigmoid volvulus who underwent primary resection and anastomosis without diversion colostomy were included in the study.</p><p><strong>Results</strong> : There were 94 males and 6 females. The age ranged from 35 to 72 years, the majority ( 65 % ) of the patients being in the age group of 41-60 years. All the patients underwent primary resection and anastomosis without on table colonic irrigation. Superficial wound infection was detected in 18% patients.. There was no clinical anastomotic leak, intra abdominal abscess or recurrence of volvulus or mortality in our series.</p><p><strong>Conclusion </strong>: In conclusion, primary resection and anastomosis of the colon without faecal diversion for acute sigmoid volvulus is safe and can be accomplished without any mechanical bowel preparation or on table colonic irrigation.</p> Madhumita Mukhopadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-03-20 2016-03-20 5 2 116 117 Health impact of high fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) and poor nutrition foods <p>Health impact of high fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) foods and drink. The evidence on the link between consumption of HFSS foods and increased risk and incidence of certain diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, certain cancers as well as contributing to high levels of obesity both for children and adults. Poor nutrition has a significant impact on health. It affects noncommunicable diseases, such as obesity, dental caries, cardiovascular disease and some cancers, as well as immune status and recovery from infection and common deficiencies like anemia, children and young people are overweight or obese. The effects of poor nutrition on non-communicable diseases build up throughout the life course. Food habits and taste develop at an early age. Childhood nutrition is affected by a wide range of factors.</p> Mohammad Asif ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-03-13 2016-03-13 5 2 07 08 Intestinal parasites and haemoglobin concentrations in pregnant women attending Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital, Port Harcourt <p>This study was carried out between January to June, 2014 at Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital, Port Harcourt to determine the haemoglobin level and intestinal parasites in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of the hospital. In total, 200 stool and blood samples were collected from the women. The stool samples were examined using direct wet preparation and formol ether concentration technique while the haemoglobin levels of the women were estimated using cyanmethaeoglobin technique. The overall prevalence of <em>E. histolytical,</em> <em>A. Lumbricoides</em>, Hookworm Spp, and <em>T. trichuria</em> was 8(4.00), 58(29.00), 8(4.00) and 8(4.00) respectively. The proportion of pregnant women with helminithic infestation was 60 (30.0%) while their mean Heamoglobin concentration was 10.85<span style="text-decoration: underline;">+</span>0.32g/dl while the pregnant women without helminthic infestation (140(70.0%) had Heamoglobin concentration of 11.03<span style="text-decoration: underline;">+</span>0.16g/dl (P&lt;0.05). The study has shown that pregnant women with intestinal parasites had low haemoglobin level. This may be attributed to poor socioeconomic status of the women coupled with poor environmental sanitation and lack of clean portable water supply may have contributed to the high prevalence.</p> Ekwusa Vivian Adegoke O. Adebayo Bamigbowu, E. Olugbenga ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-03-06 2016-03-06 5 2 01 03 Effects of exercise on growth hormone concentrations of female students in Madonna University <p>Human growth hormone is secreted in a pulsatile fashion, generally following a circadian rhythm. The growth hormone concentrations of 25 female students of Madonna University, Elele within ages groups 19-27years were determined before (Pre) and after (Post) exercise. Growth hormone levels were assayed using the commercially available Human Growth Hormone quantitative test kit whose principle is based on a solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data generated was calculated statistically using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 17. The result showed significant difference in 5.45 <span style="text-decoration: underline;">+</span> 0.97 ng/ml&nbsp; in pre exercise and 13.89 <span style="text-decoration: underline;">+</span> 1.77 ng/ml in post exercise (P&lt;0.05). There was no significant increase in growth hormone pre and Post exercise at different age groups 19-21years (13.91± 9.51 ng/ml and 14.78 ± 3.09 ng/ml), 22-24 (6.73 ±1.73 ng/ml and 11.73 ± 1.97ng/ml) and 25-27(4.77 ± 2.10ng/ml and 19.61 ± 7.54ng/ml).The study has shown that exercise can affect concentration of growth hormone in females.</p> Adegoke O. Adebayo Nwagu Chinyere Odia O. Patricia Bamigbowu E. Olugbenga George-Opuda M. Ibitoroko Ekwusa V. O ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-13 2016-02-13 5 2 04 06 Assessment of Renal Functions among Saudi Arabian Pregnant Women in Jazan Region <p> Introduction: Marked renal hemodynamic changes are apparent by the end of the first trimester. Both the Glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow increase by 50% of pregnant women. Effective renal plasma flow probably increases to a greater extent, and thus, the filtration fraction is decreased during early and mid pregnancy.<strong> Objectives: </strong>To assess the serum levels of renal functions among Saudi Arabian Pregnant women in Jazan region.<strong> Materials and Methods: </strong>a prospective, case- control hospital based study conducted in  Jazan region from March 2014– June 2015.30 pregnant women selected in Jazan General Hospital and assessed for renal function tests. 30 healthy subjects selected as control group who were age, and socioeconomic matched to the pregnancy group. SPSS was used for data analysis using student’s ‟t” test and Pearson's correlation for assessment of correlation between different variables.<strong> </strong></p><p><strong>Results:</strong> There was a significant difference in the mean of the serum levels of urea and creatinine in test group (p&lt;0.05) when compared to control group with a significant moderate positive correlation between serum levels of creatinine with the period of gestation. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Serum levels of urea and creatinine significantly reduced in Saudi Arabian pregnant women. The progressive decrease in the levels of urea and creatinine through the 3 trimesters of pregnancy suggests an increase in Glomerular filtration rate, probably due to increased cardiac output, renal blood flow and changes in fluid distribution.</p> Akram Hamed Awad All Elsukar Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-12-30 2015-12-30 5 2 127 128 Tissue Engineering in Periodontics – A Review <p>Tissue engineering is a highly promising field of reconstructive biology that draws on recent advances in medicine, surgery, molecular and cellular biology, polymer chemistry, and physiology. The objective of using tissue engineering as therapeutic application has been to harness its ability to exploit selected and primed cells together with an appropriate mix of regulatory factors to allow growth and specialization of cells and matrix. The authors reviewed controlled clinical trials which also included histological studies that evaluated the potential of tissue engineering as a clinical tool in regeneration. PubMed/MEDLINE databases were searched for studies up to and including June 2010 to identify appropriate articles. A comprehensive search was designed, and the articles were independently screened for eligibility. Articles with authentic controls and proper randomization and pertaining specifically to their role in periodontal regeneration were included. Studies demonstrated that periodontal regeneration with the use of combination of tissue engineered products with an osteoconductive matrix improve the beneficial effect of these materials by accelerating cellular in-growth and revascularization of the wound site. Studies have suggested the use of Platelet-derived growth factor alongwith beta tricalcium phosphate for regeneration of the periodontal attachment apparatus in combination with collagen membranes as an acceptable alternative to connective tissue graft for covering gingival recession defects. These studies concluded that growth factors promote true regeneration of the periodontal attachment apparatus and the use of combination protein therapeutics could provide more predictable, faster, and less invasive, less traumatic and efficient outcome for the patients.</p> C. D. Dhalkari Pallav Ganatra Pawan Sawalakhe Abhishek Singh Nayyar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-11 2015-10-11 5 2 102 104 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in lower extremity amputations – a gigantic health-care problem or a false alarm? <p><strong>Objectives</strong>:  Methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>aureus</em> (MRSA) poses not only an increasingly serious health-care problem but also a notoriously gigantic public issue.  We aimed to evaluate whether MRSA infection is a significant negative predictive factor for amputation healing and morbidity, in comparison to non-MRSA infections.</p><p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>:  A cross-sectional comparative study of all the lower extremity amputations during the 25-month study period to examine the influence of MRSA and non-MRSA infection on clinical outcome.  Results were compared between MRSA- and non-MRSA-infected patients using Fisher’s exact test.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>:  During the two-year period, 171 patients underwent lower limb amputations for acute or chronic limb ischemia.  Sixteen (9.3%) had documented wound infection; including 10 MRSA (62.5%), 2 methicillin-sensitive <em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>aureus</em> (12.5%), 2 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.5%), 1 coagulase-negative staphylococci (6.2%) and 1 enterococcus (6.2%).  Patients with MRSA and non-MRSA infections were well matched in demographics, indication &amp; level of amputation, duration of operation, American Society of Anesthetists (ASA) grades, and wound classification (p&lt;0.05).   </p><p>There was no death or morbidity observed within 30 day post-operative period in all groups within the study.  Over a 28 months median follow-up (range 16-50 months), an overall survival of 93% was observed.  Twelve patients (7%) died including one in MRSA group and 11 in no infection group. </p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:  MRSA infection does not adversely affect the clinical outcome in patients undergoing lower extremity amputations.  Regardless of presence of MRSA bacteria; common infection control measures, thorough wound debridement, careful wound surveillance and judicial administration of antibiotics should be routinely applied to all patients.</p> Muhammad Asad Parvaiz Muhammad Ahad Pervaiz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-11 2015-10-11 5 2 112 115 A short review of use of nanotechnology in periodontics <p>Nanoscience or nanotechnology refers to the development and research of an applied science at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology is developing fast in recent years and like other medical fields it is also set to transform dentistry in a huge way. It is now considered as a multidisciplinary field of scientific research. Different types of nanomaterials, nanoparticles, nanodivices and its applications are of human interest. Nanodentistry can make maintenance of oral health by employing the nanodivices which will allow precise control on various techniques in oral care like oral analgesia, dentine replacement therapy, permanent hypersensitivity cure, periodontal cure and complete orthodontic realignment etc. Nanotechnology and its application in periodontics have improved the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention of the periodontal diseases. It utilizes nanomaterials, nanobiotechnology and nanorobots for the treatment and maintenance of periodontal health. The purpose of this paper is to review the phenomenon of nonotechnology as applied to periodontics.</p> Kavita Ganiger Kartikay Sexena V. Lalitha Srivalli A. Sudheer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-11 2015-10-11 5 2 100 101 The comparison of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder and Traits in mothers of 4 -11 years children having OCD Vs control group <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)   begins in childhood and adolescence and progresses along with aging .This  survy is conducted to compare temperament and character and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) and OCPD traits in parents of children with OCD and parents of healthy controls.</p><p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>In each group, 30 patients were studied. There were 11 boys (%36.7) in the study group (children with obsessive compulsive disorder), and 12 ones in control group (%40.0). In case group, four mothers (%13.3) had obsessive compulsive personality disorder, while the frequency in control group was one (%3.3) and the frequency difference was not considered statistically significant. There was also a case of borderline personality disorder in mothers of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder, but those in control group were not diagnosed with this disorder which showed thta there was still no significant difference between the two groups. No other personality disorders (including mixed personality disorder or NOS)  was detected in two groups.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong>The results indicated that the frequency of preoccupation with details was %46.7 in the case group (children with obsessive-compulsive disorder), and %10.0 in the control group that means no significant difference between the two groups (0.002). The frequency of perfectionism was %43.3 in the treatment group and %20.0 in the control group which again had no significant difference (0.052).</p><p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The existence of the some symptomsof OCPD according to SCID in parents of children withOCD in comparison to parents of healthy children confirm the necessity of considering the role of personality factors in familial OCD.The results of this study showed that the four dimensions of temperament based on TCI-125 and triple dimensions of attitudes between mothers in the two groups was not statistically different.</p> Mitra Hakim Shushtari Kaveh Alavi Fatemeh Alizadeh Reza Bidaki Mohammad Reza Najarzadegan Mohammadreza Shalbafan Pouria Yazdian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-11 2015-10-11 5 2 108 111 To Study The Indications And Outcome Of Caesarean Section At A Tertiary Health Facility Located In A Rural Setting. <p><strong>Background: </strong>Caesarean section (CS) is a common surgical procedure performed in women of reproductive age. The numerous indications for a CS may be due to fetal or maternal problems. Though it is a life saving procedure, it also carries a higher morbidity and mortality than vagina delivery.</p><p><strong>Method</strong>: This is a retrospective study conducted from January 2014 to December 2014 at a secondary health facility located in a rural setting in Ahmednagar. The theatre registers were the sources of data.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>There were fourteen indications for the 731-caeserean sections performed with previous LSCS being</p><p>The highest indication. Previous LSCS, Fetal distress, CPD and Oligohydromnios were the major indications for caesarean</p><p>Section. There were 1 maternal death and 4 stillbirths out of the 731 babies delivered.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Changing trends and changing indications are very well can be seen from the study suggesting that <strong>“Once a cesarean always a cesarean”</strong> is what we seem to achieve in near future.</p> Hrishikesh M. Mandhane G. S Aher ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-11 2015-10-11 5 2 105 107 A Novel Technique - Pterygium excision followed by sutureless and gluefree conjunctival autografting <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>To study the efficacy and safety of sutureless and gluefree conjunctival autograft as an adjunctive therapy after removal of primary pterygium and to determine the post operative recurrence.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>A prospective, non-comparative, interventional case series. Pterygium excision and supero-temporal bulbar conjunctival autografting without sutures and glue was performed on 52 eyes of 50 patients with primary pterygium. patients were followed upto 1 year.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of the patients was 40.9 +/- 12.09 years. Of the 50 patients recurrence was observed in 1 patient (1.92%).</p><p>Graft displacement was seen in 4 (7.69%) on 1<sup>st</sup> post operative day which were successfully repositioned .Graft edema was seen in 4 (7.69%) cases while graft haematoma occurred in 3(5.76%) cases. No granuloma, retention cyst or corneal dellen noted. After 4 weeks,all grafts were taken up well and there was stastically significant reduction in astigmatism(P&lt;0.01).</p><p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study suggests that a sutureless and gluefree conjunctival autografting in the management of primary pterygium is a useful procedure resulting in low recurrence rate and also avoids the potential risks and complications of sutures, glue and amniotic membrane.</p> Poonam Bhargava Anju Kochar Rashmi Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-09-07 2015-09-07 5 2 96 99 Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of sulfonamide based transition metal complexes <p>In the present study a noval 4-oxo-4-(4-sulfamoylphenylamino)but-2-enoic acid (OSPAB) was prepared by reaction of maleic anhydride with sulphanilamide. The prepared ligand was characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies. The transition metal complexes viz. Cu<sup>2+</sup>, Ni<sup>2+</sup> , Co<sup>2+</sup> , Mn<sup>2+</sup> and  Zn<sup>2+ </sup> of OSPAB were prepared and characterized by metal-ligand (M:L) ratio, IR, reflectance spectroscopies and magnetic properties. All the prepared metal complexes and ligand were studies as antimicrobial agent. Among all the metal complexes, Zn<sup>2+ </sup>and Cu<sup>2+ </sup>metal complexes have shown significant activity.  </p> Hitesh R. Patel Asha D. Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-08-07 2015-08-07 5 2 93 95 Audiological evaluation in geriatric age group <p><strong>AIM:</strong> To evaluate the hearing thresholds in individuals aged above 65 years attending the Government General Hospital and among the people attending the hearing screening done in the city of Thiruvananthapuram. The study also includes the review of the literature on ARHL. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>185 individuals aged above 65 years are evaluated for hearing thresholds with the help of pure tone audiometry and speech audiometry. Among the 185 individuals 102 are patients attending the Department of ENT for the complaints of loss of hearing. The remaining 83 individuals are from the survey conducted to screen for hearing loss in the city of Thiruvananthapuram for the population aged above 65 years.  Demographic data about the 185 individuals is collected. Pure tone audiogram and speech audiometry is done in all the patients.<strong> CONCLUSIONS: </strong> PTA and SRT values are similar in both the groups. Early old age groups presented with mild to severe types of deafness and loss in lower frequencies. Late old aged people showed profound hearing loss and increased thresholds in higher frequencies. SRT estimation seemed more sensitive than calculating PTA in the persons above 85 years. Females showed 5 to 10 dB lower PTA values than males in all ages. <strong></strong></p> siddavatum Muneeruddin Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-07-29 2015-07-29 5 2 71 74 aluminium phosphide poisoning - A prospective clinico therapeutic study in tertiary care hospital of eastern U.P. (Gorakhpur) India <p>              Aluminium Phosphide (AlP) poisoning is extremely lethal poisoning. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intention  Phosphine, which is liberated when AlP comes in contact with moisture , is injurious and effect the cellular respiration there by it became lethal. Absence of specific         antidote results in high mortality. The key treatment lies on rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. The present study was under taken to study the salient features and ways to combat the deleterious effect of poisoning. </p><p> </p> Rakesh Kumar Shahi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-07-09 2015-07-09 5 2 85 88 Uterine rupture: A review of 15 Cases at Bandier maternity hospital in Somalia <p><strong>Background: </strong>Uterine rupture is a deadly obstetrical emergency endangering the life of both mother and fetus.</p><p><strong>Objective</strong>: To determine the frequency of ruptured uterus at Bandier Hospital and to elicit possible causes and type of management. </p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> It was cross sectional and hospital based descriptive study implemented during a time period of six months (July – December 2013) in Bandier maternity hospital and a total of 15 women presented with rupture uterus during the period of the study were included.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> There were 15 cases of ruptured uterus out of a total of 2142 deliveries. Incidence of uterine rupture was found to be 0.7%. The mean age of women was 30.03 ± 4.55 years. Concerning risk factors for rupture uterus, 10 (66.7%) had previous uterine surgery, obstructed labor was found in 33.3%, and oxytocin was used in 46.7% of respondents. Repair was done for 8 (53.3%), 3 (20.6%) of respondents underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and 4 (26.7%) were ended by subtotal hysterectomy. </p><p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Previous uterine surgery, obstructed labour and improper use of oxytocin increase the risk of uterine rupture in this study. Half of the patients underwent hysterectomy.</p> Awad Ali M. Alawad Siddig Omer Handady Hajar Hassan Sakin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-07-09 2015-07-09 5 2 82 84 Breast cancer screening with breast self examination Background: The nurse care in breast cancer care focus is not only on the medical aspect but also on the emotional aspect of care. Strategies to help detect and prevent breast cancer include regular screening for all women and lifestyle changes.<br />Purpose: This study was done to screen the women population of Khanpur kalan and surrounding villages of Haryana for breast cancer by implementing a screening programme among clinicians, nurses and paramedical workers.<br />Methods: Demographic and clinical data of breast cancer patients including mammography screening was tabulated in a proforma for evaluation. Breast self examination was taught with the help of nursing personnel.<br />Results: Breast-related complaints and/or benign/malignant breast, including fibroadenosis, adenocarcinoma, axillary lump, galactorrhoea, fibrocystic disease and mastitis were diagnosed in a sample survey of participants.<br />Conclusion: Breast screening in normal and/or asymptomatic women with significant clinical manifestations of disease is thus essential to reduce the burden of breast cancer. Nurses will be more successful in assisting women to obtain timely breast cancer screening and treatment when they better understand culturally appropriate education materials on breast cancer. Vishal Mago Neetu Kochhar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-06-30 2015-06-30 5 2 89 90 Occlusal morphology in identification of individual – A useful forensic tool <p>Dental evidence can now be employed with reasonable reliability &amp; also as an adjunct in the Identification of an unknown body or remains. Dental tissues are the strongest tissues in the human body and therefore their characteristics remain unchanged even after long periods of stay in extreme environments. When combined, occlusal features of the each arch are unique for an individual and easy to compare with antemortem dental record and may of great help in identifying an Individual</p> Urvashi Shetty Pushparaja Shetty ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-06-30 2015-06-30 5 2 91 92 Dermatoglyphic characterization of Blood groups and its relevance to oral diseases-An in vivo Study <p class="Default">Background: Dermatoglyphics have proven to be an extremely useful tool to characterize various health and disease states, through decades of scientific research, the hand has come to be recognized as a powerful tool in the diagnosis of psychological, medical and congenital disorders. Aim: To determine if there is any significant co-relation between various blood groups and dermatoglyphic patterns. Settings and Design: In the present study Dermatoglyphic patterns of sixty subjects divided into 4 groups(A,AB,B,O) of 15 each were evaluated using Cummins and Midlo method and were correlated with predetermined blood groups .Methods and Material: The dermatoglyphic patterns of all individuals 10 palmar digits were recorded using stamp-pad method and the frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was analysed.. Statistical Analysis: Data was subjected to statistical analysis and correlation of dermatoglyphic pattern with blood group was determined using chi sq test.Results and Conclusion:Whorls were highest in A blood group and lowest in B blood group, Loops were highest in O blood group and the difference was significant in AB blood group, Arches were highest in B and lowest in A blood group. </p> Anshu Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-05-30 2015-05-30 5 2 27 29 The lack of sensitivity of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) toward teicoplanin <p class="Default">A total of 60 methicillin resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(MRSA) strains clinical samples in children were collected from cellulitis, abscess, and wound samples in Al-Hilla, and Babylon teaching hospital was identified to species level and antibiotic susceptibility testing with a VITEK-2 system. In the present study, 24 (40%) of MRSA isolates were community- acquired methicillin resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(CA-MRSA), and 36 (60%) were hospitalized-acquired methicillin resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(HA-MRSA). The results showed that 35 of female, and 25 of male of MRSA isolates, and these isolates were taken from 7 of infants aged less than 6 months, and 53 children aged between 6 months and 4 years of MRSA isolates. In the present study, antimicrobial susceptibility testing with the VITEK 2 system gave resistant to 10 and sensitive to 6 antibiotics to all bacterial isolates, but only 3(5%) of bacterial isolates were resistant to teicoplanin.</p> Venus Hassan Abdul Amir Nktel Faaz Al-saad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-05-30 2015-05-30 5 2 30 32 Quantitative Estimation of Biochemical and Inorganic Constituents Present in the GallStones <p class="Default">Carcinoma of gallbladder has an unusual geographic distribution. Gallbladder cancer is the most common type of biliary tract cancer which is the fifth most common gastrointestinal tract cancer and sixth most common digestive tract malignancy. Thus, the study was carried out based on quantitative analysis of biochemical constituents (cholesterol, bilirubin, bile acids, fatty acids, phospholipids and soluble protein) and inorganic constituents (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphate, oxalate and chloride) in all the three types of gallstones and also compare the present findings with other researchers findings. The results indicated that out of 179 gallstones, 41 were of cholesterol type, 77 mixed and 61 of pigment type. Cholesterol content was found to be the major component in all the three types of stones. Also, cholesterol stones had higher content of total cholesterol, fatty acids, phospholipids and inorganic phosphates as compared to mixed stones and pigment stones. While in case of pigment stones bilirubin, bile acids, soluble protein, sodium, potassium, calcium were found to be higher as compared to cholesterol and mixed stones. The overall findings with respect to biochemical constituents resulted that the cholesterol saturation is mostly responsible for crystallization sequences in human gallbladder.</p> Swati Jain M. C. Kanchan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-05-23 2015-05-23 5 2 24 26 Assessment of diarrheal diseases among children under the age of five and its impacts in health sciences <p>Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of child mortality and mobility in the world and mostly results from contaminated food and water sources. From WHO, 780 Million individuals worldwide lack access to improved drinking water and 2.5 million lack improved sanitation. Diarrhea due to infection is widespread throughout developing countries. In developing countries, children under 3 years old experience an average three episodes of diarrhea every year. Each episode deprives the child of the nutrition necessary for growth hence as a result; diarrhea is a major case of malnutrition. This study therefore intended to determine the causes, control measures and management of diarrheal diseases in North Kamagak Location, Rachuonyo South Sub-County, Kenya. The objectives of the study were to: determine the causes of diarrheal diseases among the under five in the location; find out intervention strategies during diarrheal diseases outbreak among the residents; establish treatment options for diarrhea among the under fives; and identify home management practices of under fives diarrhea in the rural communities. The population of the study involved all under five children in North Kamagak location. Descriptive research design has been used. Stratified random sampling has been used to select 20 households from each of the three sub-locations in the location. Purposive sampling has been used to select 2 children from each selected household. Collected data has been analyzed using descriptive statistics and results presented in terms of tables, charts and graphs. The results obtained from this study show that using dirty water and not washing hands are the major causes of diarrhea. Results are useful to the ministry of health and the public in general in prevention and management of diarrheal diseases.</p> Nancy Odero Mollen Akinyi Odero N. B. Okelo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-05-21 2015-05-21 5 2 21 23 Study of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting In Children With Malignancy <p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To study chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and efficacy of antiemetics in children (&lt;18 years of age) treated for pediatric cancers with cancers chemotherapy regimens having moderate or high emetogenic potential.</p><p><strong>METHOD: </strong>This was a prospective observational study, which assessed the current usage, Chemotherapy cycles in subjects, which met the eligibility criteria were studied for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), using National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Toxicity Criteria. A total of 50 patients who met the study criteria were enrolled in to the study. All the data pertaining to reason for the antiemetic agents used were based on the emetogenic potential of the chemotherapy protocols. The main objective was to document the prescribing and administration of antiemetic and collect data on the incidence of CINV with the purpose of studying the effectiveness of antiemetic medication used.</p><p><strong>RESULT AND DISCUSSION:</strong> It was observed in our study that use of ondansetrone was according to standard guidelines. Hence although fairly good control of emesis was recorded for moderate emetogenic regimens, strategies for further improvement in antiemetic schedule for high emetogenic schedules should be considered. vincristine-actinomycin-cyclophosphamide had the highest rate of emesis while high dose methotrexate had the best control.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Hence although fairly good control of emesis was recorded for moderate emetogenic regimens, strategies for further improvement in antiemetic schedule for high emetogenic schedules should be considered. Among the various chemotherapy schedules used, it was observed that rate of acute emesis control was poorest with vincristine-actinomycin-cyclophosphamide and best control was observed with high dose methotrexate. This observation may be kept in mind when planning the anti-emetic protocol for these regimes.</p> Saumya Das Rani Rahat Gauri Kapoor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-05-21 2015-05-21 5 2 33 36 Sarcoidosis of tongue: A rare of the rarest case report with insight into varying medical treatment modalities, still inexplicable <p>Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology that predominantly affects the lungs and intra-thoracic lymph nodes. Sarcoidosis is manifested by the presence of non-caseating granulomas in affected organs and tissues. A 40 year old male patient with lesions in tongue and the palate was examined. Clinical signs were recorded and incisional biopsies from the tongue were taken. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established by the histopathological evidence of typical non-caseating granulomas from tissue biopsy, supported by an elevated serum Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (S-ACE) value of 62.4U/L and a 24hr. urine calcium of 538mg.</p> Abhishek Singh Nayyar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-05-21 2015-05-21 5 2 39 41 Minimization of Confounding in research in medical sciences <p>Confounding variables are variables that the researcher failed to control, or eliminate, damaging the internal validity of an experiment. A confounding variable, also known as a third variable or a mediator variable, can adversely affect the relation between the independent variable and dependent variable. This may cause the researcher to analyze the results incorrectly. The results may show a false correlation between the dependent and independent variables, leading to an incorrect rejection of the null hypothesis. For example, a research group might design a study to determine if heavy drinkers die at a younger age. They proceed to design a study, and set about gathering data. Their results, and a series of statistical tests, indeed show that people who drink excessively are likely to die younger. Unfortunately, when the researchers do a crosscheck with their peers, the results are ripped apart, because their peers live just as long - maybe there is another factor, not measured, that influences both drinking and living age? In many fields of science, it is difficult to remove entirely all of the variables, especially outside the controlled conditions of a lab. A well-planned experimental design, and constant checks, will filter out the worst confounding variables. For example, randomizing groups, utilizing strict controls, and sound operationalization practice all contribute to eliminating potential third variables. In this work we explore types of confounding and how to control them.</p> Mollen Akinyi Odero Nancy Odero N. B. Okelo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-05-21 2015-05-21 5 2 13 15 Neurodevelopment Hypothesis of Schizophrenia and the Structural Neuroimaging as a Tool to Prove it <p><strong>Abstract:</strong> According to the neurodevelopment hypothesis of schizophrenia it is a disorder due to brain damaging during the intrauterine or early childhood years, manifesting decades later symptomatically.</p><p>In a metaanalysis in 2001, 193 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) structural studies have been reviewed.</p><p>The data confirmed earlier findings by computer tomography (CT) studies – consistent enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles and decreased volume of the temporal lobe.<strong></strong></p><p>Decreased volume of the whole brain, ventricular dilatation, widening of the brain sulci are features defining brain atrophy.</p><p>The most common CT markers of defining the brain atrophy are:</p><p>1.Internal cerebrospinal fluid amplitudes:</p><p>Frontal horns index (FHI); Huckmann’s number (HZ); Cella media index (CMI); III and IV ventricle amplitudes.</p><p>2.External cerebrospinal fluid amplitudes:</p><p>Cizternae insulares, Frontal interhaemispheric sulcus, Number of the sulci, Sulci width</p><p>3.Temporal lobe amplitude</p><p>The new directions of studying the structural anomalies of the schizophrenic brain lean towards studying more homogenic groups of patients, linking the changes to actual stages of the disorder, comparing structural with functional changes.</p> Andriana Kakanakova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-05-21 2015-05-21 5 2 01 03 Negative pressure pulmonary oedema after total parotidectomy <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPO) is an uncommon complication of extubation of the trachea mostly caused by laryngospasm. In literature few cases have been reported.</p><p><strong>Case report</strong>: A 27-year-old male, weighing 75 kgs, ASA status class 1, underwent total parotidectomy for pleomorphic adenoma. Postextubation, the patient became restless, tachypnoeic and started desaturating. Soon after reintubation, pink, frothy fluid came out of the endotracheal tube, and a tentative diagnosis of NPPO was made. The condition improved with diuretics, oxygenation and steroids.</p><p><strong>Result</strong>: Portable chest radiograph was taken, which revealed bilateral fluffy shadows with normal cardiothoracic ratio. ECG and arterial blood gas analysis were normal.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: To conclude, acute pulmonary oedema associated with obstruction of the upper airways can aggravate low morbidity surgeries, affecting mainly young patients. The knowledge of this complication and, most importantly, its prevention are crucial.</p> Awad Ali M. Alawad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-05-21 2015-05-21 5 2 37 38 Potential role of organic sulfur compounds from Allium in cancer prevention and therapy The anticancer properties of fresh garlic extracts, aged garlic, garlic oil, and their specific organo-sulfur compounds of garlic. The anticarcinogenic and antitumorigenic characteristics appear through both dose and sequentially related changes in cellular events involved with the cancer process, including those involving drug metabolism, immune-competence, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. The ability of garlic and related allyl sulfur compounds to block tumors in the colon, lung, breast, and liver. Few studies have compared the relative efficacy of water and lipid soluble allyl sulfur compounds, when using chemically induced carcinogen models and suggested little difference in responses, whereas tumor proliferation/apoptosis is highly dependent on the species provided. A shift in sulfhydryl groups, alterations in glutathione: oxidized glutathione ratios, and resultant changes in cellular redox status may be involved in some of the phenotypic changes caused by allyl sulfur compounds. Such changes in thiols by allyl sulfurs may also account for the observed hyperphosphorylation of specific cell cycle proteins and the histone hyper acetylation that has correlated with suppressed tumor cell proliferation. Whereas the anticarcinogenic and antitumorigenic data are impressive and more studies are needed to exposures the allyl sulfur compounds anticancer activities. Mohammad Asif ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-05-14 2015-05-14 5 2 04 12 Etiological factors affecting the clinical features, prognosis and management of acute pancreatitis <p><strong>Aim: </strong>There are various etiological factors causing acute pancreatitis; of them to identify the most common aetiological factor affecting the severity of symptoms, complications and mortality in acute pancreatitis.</p><p><strong>Patients and methods: </strong>The study was conducted in Sungai Petani hospital in the State of Keddah, Malaysia. A total of 64 patients were admitted with symptoms of acute pancreatitis were retrospectively studied for symptoms, investigation results and prognosis.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 64 patients admitted for acute pancreatitis gall stone disease was noticed in 38 patients of them Malays were 34 and others were 4.Alcohol consumption was observed in 26 patients of them 24were Indians and 2were Thai. Vomiting, jaundice, fever were more common in Malays. The symptoms are more due to gallstone induced acute pancreatitis than in alcohol induced pancreatitis. Serum enzymes like serum alanine transferase, amylase and LDH level in blood and urine amylase and diastase were elevated more commonly in Malays than in Indians. Serum albumin and PO<strong><sub>2 </sub></strong>decreased in more Malays than in Indians. Both local and systemic complications were common in Malays. More Malay patients underwent surgery for gall stones.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The lipase/amylase ratio index, erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume, and gamma glutamyl transferase could not distinguish alcoholic from non-alcoholic acute pancreatitis. Patients with gallstone pancreatitis should have cholecystectomy, ideally during the same admission.   Early imipenem- cilastatin therapy appears to significantly reduce the need for surgery and complications.</p> Premkumar D. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-05-12 2015-05-12 5 2 16 20 Ascorbic Acid Metabolisms: A review <p>Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble, hexonic sugar, with a molecular weight of 176. It is known to play vital roles in numerous functions of the body, especially in hydroxylation reactions. Its requirement by animals may be increased when challenged in the form of immune and metabolic stress. The main objective of this brief review is to outline the catabolic and anabolic pathways of ascorbic acid as well as its metabolic functions.</p> Mohamed H. E. Al-Rasheedi A ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-04-30 2015-04-30 5 2 77 78 Role of Oral Lesions in Diagnosing Generalised Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa- A Rare Case Report <p class="Pa10">Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a heterogeneous group of genetically determined, vesiculo-bullous disorders char­acterized by blister formation in response to mechanical trauma. Three major subgroups, simplex, junctional, and dystrophic EB, contain more than 20 genetically and clini­cally distinct subtypes. In the present case, we described a patient diagnosed with a milder variant of generalised recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa with specific oral and cutaneous lesions, which was previously named as non-Hallopeau-Siemans subtype.</p> Abhishek Singh Nayyar Amit D. Ramchandani Aarti Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-04-30 2015-04-30 5 2 79 81 Broad Ligament Fibroid - An Unusual Presentation <p>Abstract</p><p>Giant fibroids are known to arise from the uterus, but occasionally from the broad ligament also. This is a case report of a giant broad ligament fibroid, reported for its rarity , and the diagnostic difficulties.</p> Hrishikesh madanlal mandhane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-30 2015-03-30 5 2 75 76 Role of Peritoneal Fluid Cytology in Gynaecological Cancers <p>Intraperitoneal dissemination of disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among women with genital tract cancers.Peritoneal Fluid cytology is indispensable for diagnosis, prognosis,staging and ancillary studies in gynaecological Cancers.  Peritoneal fluid was examined for the presence of tumor cells in 94 patients with ovarian and  endometrial cancer. The findings were correlated with the type, grade, and stage of the tumor. Fluids that were positive for malignant cells were associated with serous and endometrioidcarcinomas  of ovary more often than with carcinomas of other types. Patients with high-stage tumors of all types had positive fluids more often than those with low-stage tumors. The presence of tumor cells in the fluid indicated a worse prognosis at 2 years. Analysis of other factors that influence prognosis, however, revealed that this difference was related more specifically to the stage of the disease. Since the presence of tumor cells in abdominal fluid is a factor in the subclassification of Stage I and Stage II ovarian cancer, analysis of a larger group of patients with tumors in these stages is needed to establish the prognostic significance of positive cytological findings independent of other prognostic factors.</p> Tanushri Mukherjee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-30 2015-03-30 5 2 63 64 Liposomes: A targeted drug delivery system- A review <p>Liposomes are a novel drug delivery system (NDDS), which are vesicular structures consisting of hydrated bilalyers which form spontaneously whenphospholipids are dispersed in water. They are simple microscopic vesicles in which an aqueous volume is entirely enclosed by a membrane composed of lipid bilayers. Novel drug delivery system aims to deliver the drug at a rate directed by the needs of the body during the period of treatment, and channel the active entity to the siteof action. It has been a study interest in the development of a NDDS. Liposomes are colloidal spheres of cholesterol non-toxic surfactants, sphingolipids, glycolipids, long chain fatty acids and even membrane proteins and drug molecules or it is also called vesicular system. It is differ in size, composition and charge. It is a drug carrier loaded with great variety of molecules such as small drug molecules, proteins, nucleotides and even plasmids. Few drugs are also formulated as liposomes to improve their therapeutic index. Consequently a number of vesicular drug delivery systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, and pharmacosomes were developed. The focus of this review is to the various method of preparation, characterization of liposomes, advantages and applications etc.</p> Navneet Kumar Verma Asha Roshan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-30 2015-03-30 5 2 65 70 Various pyrrole and pyrrolidine derivatives acts as new trends in development of antimycobacterial agents <p>Pyrrole and pyrrolidine derivatives are important antimicrobial agents. Some pyrrole and pyrrolidine derivatives are under investigation for the treatment of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. In this article, study the pyrrole and pyrrolidine derivatives with anti-mycobacterial properties, mode of action and structure activity relationship studies of the pyrrole derivatives. Furthermore, we update the synthesis and activity of pyrrole and pyrrolidine derivatives as a new class of potent anti-mycobacterial agents. Furthermore, particularly interesting is their activity against MDR-TB.</p> Mohammad Asif ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-02-28 2015-02-28 5 2 42 46 Cadmium Induced Toxicity <p class="Default">Cadmium is a highly toxic metal that can disrupt a number of biological systems. The cadmium is responsible for the generation of reactive oxygen species, glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation, proteins cross-liking, and DNA damage; ultimately result in oxidant induced cell death. Cadmium stimulates and binds to various biological components such as proteins and non-protein sulfhydryl groups, macromolecules and metallothionein. Cadmium intoxication can lead to kidney, bone, and pulmonary damage, damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys in animals and humans in cadmium-exposed conditions.This review gives detail about mechanism and diseases resulting from cadmium induced toxicity.</p> Blessy B. Mathew Gagana V. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-02-28 2015-02-28 5 2 47 50 Aural Myiasis in Patient with Intact Tympanic Membrane <p>Myiasis is a disease caused by larvae. Aural myiasis occurs frequently in chronic otitis media but rarely found in patients with intact tynpanic membrane. In this report, aural myiasis in a child with intact tympanic membrane, is reported.</p> Vural Fidan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-02-28 2015-02-28 5 2 57 58 Surgeon’s perspective on rare yet potentially fatal complication of GI perforation following endoscopy <p>Gastrointestinal endoscopy plays an essential role in the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pathologies of the GI tract. New-generation endoscopes, advanced imaging technologies, the introduction of new therapeutic devices into clinical practice, and modification of old techniques have expanded both the diagnostic and therapeutic armamentarium of the endoscopist. complications are rare with a rate of less than 1 per 5000 cases. perforations are either due to therapeutic dilatation,  coagulation or passage of side viewing instrument  into the duodenum. Here we present a case of 56 yr old male who underwent diagnostic endoscopy for peptic ulcer. I t lead to endoscope induced large duodenal perforation of about 10 cms in its long axis recognized at laparotomy 10 days after the is important to mention the perforation was repaired surgically and patient developed no post operative complications. Undesired complications though rare, are potentially fatal and risks need to be evaluated before performing all endoscopic procedures</p> Shekhar Gogna Prateek Thakur Priya Goyal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-02-28 2015-02-28 5 2 59 60 A rare case of myofibroblastoma in the nipple of a male patient and review of literature. <p>            Myofibroblastoma of breast is described both in male and female breast but myofibroblastoma of the nipple is so far not reported. We are reporting a case of myofibroblastoma of nipple in a male which was treated by wide excision of nipple. Myofibroblastoma of the breast is an uncommon benign stromal tumor encountered predominantly in men in their sixth to seventh decades and in post-menopausal women.Myofibroblasts are spindleshaped or fusiform mesenchymal cells derived from fibroblasts and are present in small numbers in all tissues.Mammographic findings consist of a well-delimited, round to oval dense mass, variable in size but usually 1-4 cm in diameter. Although FNA cytology may support the diagnosis, surgical biopsy should be performed.  A simple surgical excision is required for this benign lesion. No recurrence has been observed. </p> Prem Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-02-28 2015-02-28 5 2 61 62 A study of socio – demographic co-relates of overweight in children in an urban school. <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Generally individuals with Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeding the age-gender-specific 95<sup>th</sup> percentile are considered overweight and those with BMI between the 85<sup>th</sup> and 95<sup>th</sup> percentiles are at risk of overweight.</p><p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>The present research was a cross sectional descriptive study undertaken to determine the socio – demographic co-relates of overweight amongst school children in the age group of 5 to 10 years in an urban school. All the 1207 children aged 5 to 10 years enrolled in the school during the study period were studied. The study consisted of anthropometric measurements and an interviewer administered questionnaire.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of the total of 1207 children examined, 57.9% were male while 42.1% were female. Based on BMI criteria, overall, 16.5%, 49.6%, 18.4% and 15.5% of the children were &lt;5<sup>th</sup>, ≥5<sup>th</sup> – &lt;85<sup>th</sup>, ≥85<sup>th</sup> - &lt;95<sup>th</sup> and ≥95<sup>th</sup> percentile, respectively. Amongst the socio-demographic factors, mother’s working status was not found to have any significant effect on the weight status of the children as was family size, total number of children in the family and diet preference. However, more children who belonged to the better socio-economic strata were found to be overweight.</p><p><strong>Discussion: </strong>Results from the present study were found to be comparable to those of other studies conducted in similar set-ups.</p><p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study revealed that overall prevalence of overweight was 15.5%, with 18.4% being at risk of overweight. Introduction of healthy lifestyle is essential for prevention of overweight/ obesity in these age groups.</p> Harinder Sekhon Sukhmeet Minhas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-02-28 2015-02-28 5 2 51 56 Study of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) - Dependent Pseudothrombocytopenia <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate and compare the cases of EDTA-PTCP with actual platelet counts at different time intervals with new anticoagulant.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>This cross–sectional study was carried out in rural tertiary centre in central India. Blood samples were collected in K3-EDTA and CPT vials separately and subjected for peripheral smear examination and manual platelet counts. Comparison of platelet counts obtained by automated cell counter at 30 minutes, 3-4 hours and at 24 hours of blood collection from both anticoagulants and with manual counts was done.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The platelet counts in EDTA anticoagulated blood on suspicion of thrombocytopenia, as well as even after collection of fresh blood sample from same patient in EDTA and the counts at different time intervals showed significantly lower counts than that observed in CPT anticoagulated blood at the parallel time intervals and than that in the manual platelet counts.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Unrecognized PTCP may result in unnecessary laboratory testing, bone marrow aspiration and unwarranted transfusions and will prevent needless evaluations of thrombocytopenia and related therapeutic decisions.</p> Nikita Subhash Oza Narayan S. Ingole Nitin M. Gangane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-02-28 2014-02-28 5 2 01 05 10.4560/ams.v1i1.31