Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analysis of Vitellaria paradoxa Nut in Selected Districts in Kebbi State, Nigeria
Selected shea nut fat extracts were subjected to physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical analysis and showed the following results; Saponification values mgKOH/g; 141.650.40c 166.1 0.80ab, 169.791.29a, Iodine values I2/100g; 51.170.18c,53.540.39a,51.780.26b, Acid values mgKOH/g; 15.52 1.62a, 14.26 0.33b, 7.520.33a, Free fatty acids mg/g; 5.040.05b, 4.20 0.04bc, 7.520.33a, and Specific gravities; 0.94 0.02a, 0.96 0.03a, 0.930.01a both for Illo, Kwanga and Kwere samples respectively. Phytochemical qualitatively determined inclules; cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and terpenoids for Illo, Kwanga and Kwere samples respectively. The results showed various probable uses of the fats extracts including domestic and industrial.
Okullo, J., B., L. (2004) Vitellaria paradoxa in Uganda: Population structures and reproductive characteristics. A thesis submitted in the University of Wales, Bangor, UK for the Philosophiae Degree. p303.
 Coulibaly, Y., Ouédraogo, S.,and Niculescu,N (2009). Experimental study of shea butter extraction efficiency using a centrifugal process. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 4(6): 14-19
 Acquaye, D., Smith, M., Letchamo, W., Angers, P. and Simon, J. (2001). Shea butter. Agrobusiness inSustainable Natural African Plant Products. Pp: 1-2. http://www.aspenwoodbathhandbody.com/Docs/sheabutter.pdf Accessed on 1/6/2015
 Akihisa, T; Kojima, N; Kikuchi, T; Yasukawa, K; Tokuda, H; Masters, E; Manosroi, A; Manosroi, J (2010). "Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of triterpene cinnamates and acetates from shea fat". Journal of oleo science59 (6): 273–80.
 Karin, L. (2004). Vitallaria paradoxa and feasibility of shea butter project in the North of
Cameroon. Master of Science thesis submitted to the University of Montana. USA
 Bassir, O. (1978). Handbook of practical biochemistry.Ibadan University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria.
 AOAC(1998). Official Methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,16thEdition, Gaithersburg, USA.
 Akpan,U.G.,Jimoh,A and Mohammed,A.D.(2006). Extraction and characterization and modification ofcastor seed. Leonardo Journal of Sciences.8:43-52
 Trease and Evans (1989). Trease and evans Mexican medicinal plants. Journal
ofethnopharmacological pharmacognosy. 13: 222-230
Harborne, J.B. (1998). Phytochemical methods. A guide to modern techniques of plant
analysis. 3rd edition. Chapman and Hall publishing. London. UK. p 67
 Sofowara, A. (1993). Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa (2nd edition). Screening for bioactive agents Spectrum books limited,Ibadan, Nigeria. pp 134-156.
 Mbatchou, V.C. and Kosoono, I. (2012). Aphrodisiac activity of oils from Anacardium
occidentaleL. Seeds. Phytopharmacology- International journal of phytotherapeutics
and bioactive naturalproducts. 2(1): 81-91
Oshinowo, T (1987). Evaluation of some Nigerian oils as Potential Raw materials for Polyvinyl Chloride Thermal Stabilizers. Journal of Nigerian Society of Chemical Engineers6(1):36-41.
 Mabrouk, S.T (2005). Making Useable, Quality Opaque or Transparent Soap. Journal of Chemical
 Akpan, U.G In: (Ed) Eyo, A.A. Aluko, P.O, Garba, S.A, Ali, U.D, Lamai, S.L and Olufeagba, S.O (2000). Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the Biotechnology Society of Nigeria, pp63-66.
 Nwinuka, N. M.and Nwiloh, B. I.(2009). Physico-chemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition ofDennettia tripetala Fruit Oil (Pepper Fruit). Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.24(1):42 – 46
 Ikhuoria, E. U. and Maliki, M (2007). Characterization of Avocado pear(Persea americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes adulis) extracts. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(7):950-952
 Kochhar, S.L. (1998).Economic Botany in the Tropics.2nd ed. Macmillan India Ltd. p171
 Davine, J and Williams,P.N. The chemistry and technology of edible oils and fats. 1stEdition, Pergamon press. 1961. London.
 Oyedele, A.O (2002).The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as excipient in topical
Preparations Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine.66:26-29
 Afolabi, I. S. 2008. Chemical qualities of oils from some fresh and markert vegetablecrops within Kwara State of Nigeria. Biokemistri, 20: 71-75.
 Achinewhu, S.C (1982). Composition and food potential of African oil bean and velvet bean. Journal of Food Science 47:17386.
 Nwinuka, N.M., Ogbonda, J. and Ayalogu, E.O., (2001). Physicochemical characterization ofbreadnut (Artocarpus altilis) seed oil. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science. 7(3):451-453.
 Nielson, S. S. Introduction to the chemical analysis of foods. Chapman and Hall, New York. 1994; 93-207.
 Gafar M. K., A. U. Itodo, A. A. Warra and L. Abdullahi (2012). Extraction and
Physicochemical Determination of Garlic (Allium sativum L) Oil.International Journal
of Food and Nutrition Science 1(2): 4-7
 Rajnarayana, K. Reddy, M.S. Chaluvadi, M.R. and Krishna, D.R. (2001). Biflavonoids
classification, pharmacological, biochemical effects and therapeutic potential. Indian
journal of pharmacology, 33:2-16.
 Rao, M.R. Rao, Y.M. Rao, A.V. Prabhkar, M.C. Rao C.S. and Muralidhar, N(1998).
Antinociceptive and anti-iNflammatory activity of a flavonoid isolated from Carallitma
attenuate. Journal of Ethnopharmacol, 62:63-66.
 Hawkins, E.B. and Erlich, S.D. (2006). Gotu Kola. University of Maryland Medical center,
Baltimore, United States of America.
 Iwu, M.W. Ncan, A.R. and Okunji. C.O. (1999). New antimicrobials of plant origin.
In. J. Janick (Ed). Perspectives in New Crops and New Uses, ASHS Press, Alexandria.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).