Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analysis of Vitellaria paradoxa Nut in Selected Districts in Kebbi State, Nigeria

  • Ukpanukpong, R. U Biochemistry Department, College of Natural Sciences, Joseph Ayo Babalola University P.M.B 5006 Ikeji-Arakeji Osun State
Keywords: Shea nuts, fat extracts, physicochemical and phytochemicals


Selected shea nut fat extracts were subjected to physicochemical  and qualitative phytochemical analysis and showed the following results; Saponification values mgKOH/g; 141.650.40c 166.1   0.80ab, 169.791.29a, Iodine values I2/100g; 51.170.18c,53.540.39a,51.780.26b, Acid values mgKOH/g; 15.52  1.62a, 14.26  0.33b, 7.520.33a, Free fatty acids mg/g; 5.040.05b, 4.20   0.04bc,  7.520.33a, and Specific gravities; 0.94   0.02a, 0.96   0.03a, 0.930.01a both for Illo, Kwanga and Kwere samples respectively. Phytochemical qualitatively determined inclules; cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and  terpenoids  for Illo, Kwanga and Kwere samples respectively. The results showed various probable uses of the fats extracts including domestic and industrial.


Download data is not yet available.


[1] Carette, C., Malotaux, M., Leeuwen, M. and Tolkamp, M. (2009). Shea nut and butter in Ghana Opportunities and constraints for local processing. Hans Eenhoorn and Resilience Foundation. p6, 8

[2]Okullo, J., B., L. (2004) Vitellaria paradoxa in Uganda: Population structures and reproductive characteristics. A thesis submitted in the University of Wales, Bangor, UK for the Philosophiae Degree. p303.

[3] Coulibaly, Y., Ouédraogo, S.,and Niculescu,N (2009). Experimental study of shea butter extraction efficiency using a centrifugal process. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 4(6): 14-19

[4] Acquaye, D., Smith, M., Letchamo, W., Angers, P. and Simon, J. (2001). Shea butter. Agrobusiness inSustainable Natural African Plant Products. Pp: 1-2. Accessed on 1/6/2015

[5] Akihisa, T; Kojima, N; Kikuchi, T; Yasukawa, K; Tokuda, H; Masters, E; Manosroi, A; Manosroi, J (2010). "Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of triterpene cinnamates and acetates from shea fat". Journal of oleo science59 (6): 273–80.

[6] Karin, L. (2004). Vitallaria paradoxa and feasibility of shea butter project in the North of
Cameroon. Master of Science thesis submitted to the University of Montana. USA

[7] Bassir, O. (1978). Handbook of practical biochemistry.Ibadan University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria.
[8] AOAC(1998). Official Methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,16thEdition, Gaithersburg, USA.
[9] Akpan,U.G.,Jimoh,A and Mohammed,A.D.(2006). Extraction and characterization and modification ofcastor seed. Leonardo Journal of Sciences.8:43-52
[10] Trease and Evans (1989). Trease and evans Mexican medicinal plants. Journal
ofethnopharmacological pharmacognosy. 13: 222-230

[11]Harborne, J.B. (1998). Phytochemical methods. A guide to modern techniques of plant
analysis. 3rd edition. Chapman and Hall publishing. London. UK. p 67

[12] Sofowara, A. (1993). Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa (2nd edition). Screening for bioactive agents Spectrum books limited,Ibadan, Nigeria. pp 134-156.

[13] Mbatchou, V.C. and Kosoono, I. (2012). Aphrodisiac activity of oils from Anacardium
occidentaleL. Seeds. Phytopharmacology- International journal of phytotherapeutics
and bioactive naturalproducts. 2(1): 81-91

[14]Oshinowo, T (1987). Evaluation of some Nigerian oils as Potential Raw materials for Polyvinyl Chloride Thermal Stabilizers. Journal of Nigerian Society of Chemical Engineers6(1):36-41.

[15] Mabrouk, S.T (2005). Making Useable, Quality Opaque or Transparent Soap. Journal of Chemical
Education 82(10):1534-1537

[16] Akpan, U.G In: (Ed) Eyo, A.A. Aluko, P.O, Garba, S.A, Ali, U.D, Lamai, S.L and Olufeagba, S.O (2000). Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the Biotechnology Society of Nigeria, pp63-66.
[17] Nwinuka, N. M.and Nwiloh, B. I.(2009). Physico-chemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition ofDennettia tripetala Fruit Oil (Pepper Fruit). Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.24(1):42 – 46
[18] Ikhuoria, E. U. and Maliki, M (2007). Characterization of Avocado pear(Persea americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes adulis) extracts. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(7):950-952
[19] Kochhar, S.L. (1998).Economic Botany in the Tropics.2nd ed. Macmillan India Ltd. p171
[20] Davine, J and Williams,P.N. The chemistry and technology of edible oils and fats. 1stEdition, Pergamon press. 1961. London.

[21] Oyedele, A.O (2002).The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as excipient in topical
Preparations Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine.66:26-29

[22] Afolabi, I. S. 2008. Chemical qualities of oils from some fresh and markert vegetablecrops within Kwara State of Nigeria. Biokemistri, 20: 71-75.

[23] Achinewhu, S.C (1982). Composition and food potential of African oil bean and velvet bean. Journal of Food Science 47:17386.
[24] Nwinuka, N.M., Ogbonda, J. and Ayalogu, E.O., (2001). Physicochemical characterization ofbreadnut (Artocarpus altilis) seed oil. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science. 7(3):451-453.
[25] Nielson, S. S. Introduction to the chemical analysis of foods. Chapman and Hall, New York. 1994; 93-207.

[26] Gafar M. K., A. U. Itodo, A. A. Warra and L. Abdullahi (2012). Extraction and
Physicochemical Determination of Garlic (Allium sativum L) Oil.International Journal
of Food and Nutrition Science 1(2): 4-7

[27] Rajnarayana, K. Reddy, M.S. Chaluvadi, M.R. and Krishna, D.R. (2001). Biflavonoids
classification, pharmacological, biochemical effects and therapeutic potential. Indian
journal of pharmacology, 33:2-16.

[28] Rao, M.R. Rao, Y.M. Rao, A.V. Prabhkar, M.C. Rao C.S. and Muralidhar, N(1998).
Antinociceptive and anti-iNflammatory activity of a flavonoid isolated from Carallitma
attenuate. Journal of Ethnopharmacol, 62:63-66.

[29] Hawkins, E.B. and Erlich, S.D. (2006). Gotu Kola. University of Maryland Medical center,
Baltimore, United States of America.

[30] Iwu, M.W. Ncan, A.R. and Okunji. C.O. (1999). New antimicrobials of plant origin.
In. J. Janick (Ed). Perspectives in New Crops and New Uses, ASHS Press, Alexandria.
Original Articles