Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analysis of Vitellaria paradoxa Nut in Selected Districts in Kebbi State, Nigeria

  • Ukpanukpong, R. U Biochemistry Department, College of Natural Sciences, Joseph Ayo Babalola University P.M.B 5006 Ikeji-Arakeji Osun State

Abstract

Selected shea nut fat extracts were subjected to physicochemical  and qualitative phytochemical analysis and showed the following results; Saponification values mgKOH/g; 141.650.40c 166.1   0.80ab, 169.791.29a, Iodine values I2/100g; 51.170.18c,53.540.39a,51.780.26b, Acid values mgKOH/g; 15.52  1.62a, 14.26  0.33b, 7.520.33a, Free fatty acids mg/g; 5.040.05b, 4.20   0.04bc,  7.520.33a, and Specific gravities; 0.94   0.02a, 0.96   0.03a, 0.930.01a both for Illo, Kwanga and Kwere samples respectively. Phytochemical qualitatively determined inclules; cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and  terpenoids  for Illo, Kwanga and Kwere samples respectively. The results showed various probable uses of the fats extracts including domestic and industrial.

References

[1] Carette, C., Malotaux, M., Leeuwen, M. and Tolkamp, M. (2009). Shea nut and butter in Ghana Opportunities and constraints for local processing. Hans Eenhoorn and Resilience Foundation. p6, 8

[2]Okullo, J., B., L. (2004) Vitellaria paradoxa in Uganda: Population structures and reproductive characteristics. A thesis submitted in the University of Wales, Bangor, UK for the Philosophiae Degree. p303.

[3] Coulibaly, Y., Ouédraogo, S.,and Niculescu,N (2009). Experimental study of shea butter extraction efficiency using a centrifugal process. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 4(6): 14-19

[4] Acquaye, D., Smith, M., Letchamo, W., Angers, P. and Simon, J. (2001). Shea butter. Agrobusiness inSustainable Natural African Plant Products. Pp: 1-2. http://www.aspenwoodbathhandbody.com/Docs/sheabutter.pdf Accessed on 1/6/2015

[5] Akihisa, T; Kojima, N; Kikuchi, T; Yasukawa, K; Tokuda, H; Masters, E; Manosroi, A; Manosroi, J (2010). "Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of triterpene cinnamates and acetates from shea fat". Journal of oleo science59 (6): 273–80.

[6] Karin, L. (2004). Vitallaria paradoxa and feasibility of shea butter project in the North of
Cameroon. Master of Science thesis submitted to the University of Montana. USA

[7] Bassir, O. (1978). Handbook of practical biochemistry.Ibadan University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria.
[8] AOAC(1998). Official Methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,16thEdition, Gaithersburg, USA.
[9] Akpan,U.G.,Jimoh,A and Mohammed,A.D.(2006). Extraction and characterization and modification ofcastor seed. Leonardo Journal of Sciences.8:43-52
[10] Trease and Evans (1989). Trease and evans Mexican medicinal plants. Journal
ofethnopharmacological pharmacognosy. 13: 222-230

[11]Harborne, J.B. (1998). Phytochemical methods. A guide to modern techniques of plant
analysis. 3rd edition. Chapman and Hall publishing. London. UK. p 67

[12] Sofowara, A. (1993). Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa (2nd edition). Screening for bioactive agents Spectrum books limited,Ibadan, Nigeria. pp 134-156.

[13] Mbatchou, V.C. and Kosoono, I. (2012). Aphrodisiac activity of oils from Anacardium
occidentaleL. Seeds. Phytopharmacology- International journal of phytotherapeutics
and bioactive naturalproducts. 2(1): 81-91

[14]Oshinowo, T (1987). Evaluation of some Nigerian oils as Potential Raw materials for Polyvinyl Chloride Thermal Stabilizers. Journal of Nigerian Society of Chemical Engineers6(1):36-41.

[15] Mabrouk, S.T (2005). Making Useable, Quality Opaque or Transparent Soap. Journal of Chemical
Education 82(10):1534-1537

[16] Akpan, U.G In: (Ed) Eyo, A.A. Aluko, P.O, Garba, S.A, Ali, U.D, Lamai, S.L and Olufeagba, S.O (2000). Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the Biotechnology Society of Nigeria, pp63-66.
[17] Nwinuka, N. M.and Nwiloh, B. I.(2009). Physico-chemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition ofDennettia tripetala Fruit Oil (Pepper Fruit). Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.24(1):42 – 46
[18] Ikhuoria, E. U. and Maliki, M (2007). Characterization of Avocado pear(Persea americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes adulis) extracts. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(7):950-952
[19] Kochhar, S.L. (1998).Economic Botany in the Tropics.2nd ed. Macmillan India Ltd. p171
[20] Davine, J and Williams,P.N. The chemistry and technology of edible oils and fats. 1stEdition, Pergamon press. 1961. London.

[21] Oyedele, A.O (2002).The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as excipient in topical
Preparations Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine.66:26-29

[22] Afolabi, I. S. 2008. Chemical qualities of oils from some fresh and markert vegetablecrops within Kwara State of Nigeria. Biokemistri, 20: 71-75.

[23] Achinewhu, S.C (1982). Composition and food potential of African oil bean and velvet bean. Journal of Food Science 47:17386.
[24] Nwinuka, N.M., Ogbonda, J. and Ayalogu, E.O., (2001). Physicochemical characterization ofbreadnut (Artocarpus altilis) seed oil. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science. 7(3):451-453.
[25] Nielson, S. S. Introduction to the chemical analysis of foods. Chapman and Hall, New York. 1994; 93-207.

[26] Gafar M. K., A. U. Itodo, A. A. Warra and L. Abdullahi (2012). Extraction and
Physicochemical Determination of Garlic (Allium sativum L) Oil.International Journal
of Food and Nutrition Science 1(2): 4-7

[27] Rajnarayana, K. Reddy, M.S. Chaluvadi, M.R. and Krishna, D.R. (2001). Biflavonoids
classification, pharmacological, biochemical effects and therapeutic potential. Indian
journal of pharmacology, 33:2-16.

[28] Rao, M.R. Rao, Y.M. Rao, A.V. Prabhkar, M.C. Rao C.S. and Muralidhar, N(1998).
Antinociceptive and anti-iNflammatory activity of a flavonoid isolated from Carallitma
attenuate. Journal of Ethnopharmacol, 62:63-66.

[29] Hawkins, E.B. and Erlich, S.D. (2006). Gotu Kola. University of Maryland Medical center,
Baltimore, United States of America.

[30] Iwu, M.W. Ncan, A.R. and Okunji. C.O. (1999). New antimicrobials of plant origin.
In. J. Janick (Ed). Perspectives in New Crops and New Uses, ASHS Press, Alexandria.
Pp457-462.
Published
2017-05-11
How to Cite
U, Ukpanukpong, R.. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analysis of Vitellaria paradoxa Nut in Selected Districts in Kebbi State, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Biological and Basic Research, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 7, p. 28-30, may 2017. ISSN 2454-6097. Available at: <http://asdpub.com/index.php/jabbr/article/view/354>. Date accessed: 20 aug. 2017.
Section
Original Articles