A review of the microbial quality of potable water sources in Nigeria

  • Sylvester Chibueze Izah Master of Science student, Niger Delta University http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5526-006X
  • Ebinyo Rebecca Ineyougha Department of Science Foundation, School of Foundation Studies, Bayelsa state College of Health Technology, Otuogidi, Nigeria
Keywords: Contaminants, drinking water, Environment, Microorganisms, Public Health


Microbes are ubiquitous and are known to contaminate materials including food and water.  This study reviews the microbial quality of potable water sources in Nigeria. The study found that the microbial quality often exceed World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization allowable limit of 1.0 x 102cfu/ml for potable water and Standard Organization of Nigeria maximum permissible level of 10cfu/ml (total coliform) and 0 cfu/100ml (Thermo tolerant Coliform or E. coli, Faecal streptococcus and Clostridium perfringens spore). However, surface water has high microbial load than the ground water. In packaged water, bottled water has lower microbial diversity and density than the sachet water. The high microbial isolates and load may have contaminated the water from the environment. These microbes found in the drinking water sources are known to cause several diseases conditions. The paper suggests drinking water sources should be properly treated prior to consumption using appropriate method; so as to reduce the occurrence of waterborne disease.


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